Embryonic stem cells are the basic building blocks for some 260 body cell types; these building blocks can become anything: heart, muscle, brain, skin, blood or other somatic utility. Research hopes to guide laboratory transformation and coax stem cells to treat diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, and/or other body disorders.
To know Stem Cells, one must understand first how molecular development (atom combinations producing molecules) represents the first stage in cellular development. It has been said: “The cell is the bedrock of nature.” But this writer, Ben Winter, disagrees; for the bedrock of nature rests not in cellular complexity but in single atom propensity—and these are somehow composed of, or effected by, subatomic particles, and these by yet unknown energy sources. Before becoming a ‘bedrock cell,’ many trillions of atom actions and reactions must transfer energy before a human cell can maintain itself and its environment, beginning as a single molecule (bonding of two or more atoms).
Basic biochemistry understands the assembly of two or more atoms to constitute molecular creation. ‘Hydrogen atoms’ are the most abundant element in the universe, mechanically used in the production of synthetic ammonia and methanol, in petroleum refining, and in the hydrogenation of organic materials. ‘Oxygen atoms’ constitute 21 percent of Earth’s atmosphere by volume and occurs as a diatomic gas in compounds such as water and iron ore. Oxygen combines with many elements and is essential for plant and animal respiration—and compulsory for most combustion types. Oxygen and hydrogen retain the propensity to create water; all it takes is two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom bonding to create a water molecule —even so, a catalyst is needed to instigate condensation into appreciable precipitation, and thus, to unaided perception. Therewith, we gain insight into molecular development; notwithstanding, all different chemical molecules are created from differing atom combinations.
Without water, our environment would be unfriendly to present life forms. And life’s chemistry is enormously complicated, where atom trillions within body cells must be built step by step, from uncountable molecular composites, composed entirely of atoms. Amino acids, enzymes, proteins, and perhaps other unknown incentives (all atomically bonded) are building blocks ‘evolved’ from simple molecules, to complex cells; these cells are then imbued with instigation and mitigation to make cellular life functional.
Theoreticians Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann concluded cells to compose the entirety of animal and plant bodies. Each cell was discovered to be an individual unit, with its own life. Schleiden and Schwann worked in the early to middle 1800s—during Darwin’s travels and The Origin of Species publication. Creationists discount Darwin’s Natural Selection theory, especially religious biochemists; for, they perceive cellular development to inhere ‘irreducible complexity’ through omnipotent creation.
This author, Ben Winter, finds the ‘irreducible complexity’ in cellular composition to be self-incriminating; for such complexity is not irreducible but can be reduced further, to the very least molecule, to single atoms, and to subatomic affinity involving symbiosis. Thus, ‘bedrock of nature’ rests not in molecule inspired cells but in single atom inherence. Without water, our environment would be unfriendly to present life forms. Yet, simple water molecules do not own the complexity in more dynamic symbiosis cells.
Stuart Kauffman of Santa Fe Institute fame, championed atom propensity: “the tendency of complex systems to arrange themselves in patterns—and not due to natural selection: ‘Darwin and evolution stand astride us, whatever the mutterings of creation scientists. But is the view right?. . . . I believe it is not. It is not that Darwin is wrong, but that he got hold of only part of the truth.’” Darwin could not explain molecular structure, of course; biochemistry advancements were not present in Darwin’s investigative time!
Realistically, human cells contain many trillions of atoms; many are residue from the combinations furnished by many other trillions of atom constructions repeatedly used and habitually reduced to basic units (atoms), in a quantum transformation processes utilizing ultimate workability and inherent atom activity.
We know Hydrogen and Oxygen have the inherent propensity to produce water—without creature influence. By repeatable experiment, we know this to be an essence of Hydrogen and Oxygen properties. Might we not conclude: propensity exists in other atomic essence? Gold ore does not appear as an initially occurred metal, but gold atomic incidence has the propensity to assimilate under the right conditions—into grains, threads, and nuggets. Such atomic attraction is mimicked by B cell antibodies, whose ‘Y’ extension from the cell body is so constructed, on its split extension, as to fit the shape of encountered objects (bacteria [atomic conglomerates]), and thus bond—which B cell then replicates its antibody properties. Does not the human brain resemble polypeptide construction folded into quaternary structure? We find much resemblance in visible assemblies and microbiology. Does not a polypeptide endure the same fold around its backbone as a developing fetus?
The cell is a molecular machine, mostly composed of interacting proteins. In the production of ATP, a mononucleotide found in cells, several molecular steps are involved; first, a composite molecule begins the processes with a conglomerate assembly of carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus, etc., (properly bonded in number and atom diversity to the host atom). Thus we begin an incredibly complex addition of atomic substrates and subsequent rejection of no longer needed atom components. Evolvement, from one stage to another, is motivated by named energizers composed of yet other atom composition; from this composition, additional atoms are attracted to prepare for the next stage and notwithstanding the discard of previously added but no longer needed atoms in the congregate. A dozen or more sequenced stages illustrate the scientist’s perceived ‘irreducible complexity’ in cell and protein production. Even in the construction used to suggest irreducible character, we can easily discount the ‘irreducible complexity’ claim.
The Monotheism/biochemistry writer, Behe, described Darwin’s evolutionary account as “a process whereby life arose from nonliving matter and subsequently developed entirely by natural means.” In premise, Behe posits a ‘propositional’ truism: ‘absence of journalistic evidence constitutes an absence of scientific viability.’ Surely, the anomaly only means discovery has not been forthcoming. Remember this definition and compare Behe’s definition of Darwinian evolution with his own ‘evolutionary’ description involving cellular development. Ben Winter would observe: Contrary to Behe bias, AMP production, similar in complexity to other molecular designs, cannot be separated from Darwin’s larger scale hypotheses; for, molecular development derives from nonliving matter and is subsequently developed entirely by natural means!
Creationism appeals to majority intellect; often, Evolution is painted in evil contrast to Creation purity. Such represents mere attempts to placate metaphysical convictions and enthuse confederation in majority consensus. Condemning evolution does not make the Evolution hypothesis wrong; it only makes the Creationist confederate feel good.
It makes little sense to bash Darwin’s evolution theory; for evolution and creation via molecular instigation live side by side with biochemical interaction--sans contradiction. In THE GREAT DECEPTION: Symbols And Numbers Clarified, author Ben Winter posits a time-sequenced amelioration for Biblical, Astrophysical, Geological, Biological, and Evolutional measurements. Plus, biblical depiction of ‘Ten Ages,’ as a quantitative measure, incorporates the entire Bible physical and metaphysical measure in a true correlation with time and space. In the interest of science, ‘Evolution’ or ‘Intelligent Design,’ then, remains unresolved and left to individual determination. Unmindful of controversy, ‘Intelligent Design’ and ‘Evolution synthesis’ works hand in hand to produce ‘Stem Cells’ and functioning life forms, regardless theory, superstition, or discipline. Atom ‘intelligence’ ‘evolves’ through bonding, co-valance, and evolved atomic inherency critical to life and stem cell production.
Assisted in the laboratory, stem cell development is instigated with an ovum nucleate removal and its replacement with DNA from another cell. With special catalyst, the ovum begins to divide; one tiny cell evolves into two, the two into four, and doubling thereafter until, at a certain stage, stem cells can be removed from blastocyst mass—the blastocyst residue then being discarded. These stem cells can be designated ‘unspecialized cells’ and grown into skin cells, nerve, heart, liver, lung, blood, pancreas, etc.—thereby offering to rehabilitate or regenerate new parts for ailing human organs or cells within such agency. And while stem cells offer the potential for many ailment cures or prevention, ethical problems arise in monotheism resentment to possible human cloning advancements and therefore to metaphysical belief infringement. Monotheist appeal, then, contains a whole new ethical consideration; but regardless opposition in our free society, Clonaid claims to have replicated a living human and completed the gestation time frame. But this has little to do with stem cell development for clinical benefit. If one should diagnose the pre-egg, pre-blastocyst, pre-DNA institution, pre-ATP instigation, he would arrive to the basic unit: a never still, always on the move, single atom nucleate with its prescribed electron energy shell harboring the very essence of quantum mechanics--energy--and life.